Level of Clinical Evidence
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- Global prevalence of diabetes estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 1047-1053
World Health Organization. Chronic Complications of Diabetes. In: Guidelines for the prevention, management and care of Diabetes Mellitus, p 99. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/emro/2006/9789290214045_eng.pdf. Accessed January 3, 2008.
- Turek’s Orthopaedics: Principles and Applications.(pp 375–378) JB Lippincott, Philadelphia1977
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- The lateral column lengthening and medial column stabilization procedures.Clin Orthop. 1999; 365: 81-90
- Evaluation of Young’s modulus in Achilles tendons with diabetic neuroarthropathy.J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005; 95: 242-246
- Pattern of diabetic neuropathic arthropathy associated with the peripheral bone mineral density.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004; 86-B: 378-383
- Osteoporosis: an under-appreciated complication of diabetes.Clin Diabetes. 2004; 22: 1
- Electron microscopic investigation of the effects of diabetes mellitus on the Achilles tendon.J Foot Ankle Surg. 1997; 36: 272-278
Grant WP. Biomechanics of the Charcot foot collapse and roding the medial column of the foot as a beam to salvage the Charcot foot. Paper presented at: Annual American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons Scientific Seminar, Orlando, FL, February 5–8, 1997.
- Joint Structure & Function: A Comprehensive Analysis.(pp 379–415)ed 2. F A Davies Company, Philadelphia, PA1992
- Can the presence of equinus contracture be established by physical exam alone?.J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001; 38: 335-340
- Diagnosis and treatment of adult flatfoot.J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005; 44: 78-113
- Intramedullary nailing of the lower extremity biomechanics and biology.Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007; 15: 97-106
- The effects of reaming and intramedullary nailing on fracture healing.Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986; 212: 18-25
- The effect of reamed and nonreamed intramedullary nailing on fracture healing.Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1998; 355S: S230-S238
- Reamed versus nonreamed intramedullary nailing of lower extremity long bone fractures: a systemic overview and meta-analysis.J Orthop Trauma. 2000; 14: 2-9
- Patterns of disintegration of the tarsus in the anesthetic foot.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1966; 48-B: 4-16
- Clinical outcome after primary triple arthrodesis.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000; 82-A: 47-57
- Implant materials for fracture fixation: a clinical perspective.Orthopedics. 1989; 12: 75-79
- An analysis of dynamic forces transmitted through the foot in diabetic neuropathy.Diabetes Care. 1998; 21: 1955-1959
- Lengthening of the Achilles tendon in diabetic patients who are at high risk for ulceration of the foot.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999; 81: 535-538
- Effect of Achilles tendon lengthening on the neuropathic plantar ulcers: a randomized clinical trial.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003; 85-A: 1436-1445
- The biomechanics and biology of internal fixation using plates and nails.Orthopedics. 1989; 12: 21-34
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Conflict of Interest: None reported.