Original Research| Volume 51, ISSUE 6, P711-713, November 2012

SmartToe® Implant Compared with Kirschner Wire Fixation for Hammer Digit Corrective Surgery: A Review of 28 Patients

Published:August 10, 2012DOI:


      For many years, end-to-end arthrodesis of a proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis to correct hammer digit deformity has been fixated with a Kirschner wire (K-wire). For this particular hammer digit deformity correction, we attempted to determine the effectiveness of the SmartToe® intramedullary shape memory implant compared with the K-wire. In a retrospective analysis of 28 cases, we evaluated several important parameters at baseline, postoperative days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56, and 6 months for pain, complications, arthrodesis achieved, and return-to-work status. The SmartToe® outperformed the K-wire in all categories, with no evidence of significant complications, compared with multiple complications for patients in the K-wire arm of the study. This study demonstrates that the SmartToe® is a reasonable choice for fixation of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in hammer digit correction.

      Level of Clinical Evidence


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • McGlamry E.D.
        • Jimenez A.L.
        • Green D.R.
        Lesser ray deformities: deformities of the intermediate digits and metatarsophalangeal joint.
        in: Banks A.S. Downey M.S. Martin D.E. Miller S.J. McGlamry E.D. McGlamry's Comprehensive Textbook of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2001
        • Kitaoka H.B.
        • Richardson E.G.
        Realignment of lesser toe deformities.
        in: Kitaoka H.B. Master Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery: The Foot and Ankle. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2002: 150-155
        • Schrier J.C.
        • Louwerens J.W.
        • Verheyen C.C.
        Opinions on lesser toe deformities among Dutch orthopaedic departments.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2007; 28: 1265-1270
        • Miller S.J.
        Hammer toe correction by arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint using cortical bone allograft pin.
        J Am Med Podiatr Assoc. 2002; 92: 563-569
        • Konkel K.F.
        • Menger A.G.
        • Retzlaff S.A.
        Hammer toe correction using an absorbable intramedullary pin.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2007; 28: 916-920
        • Caterini R.
        • Farsetti P.
        • Tarantino U.
        • Potenza V.
        • Ippolito E.
        Arthrodesis of the toe joints with an intramedullary cannulated screw for correction of hammertoe deformity.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2004; 25: 256-261