Advertisement

The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® Clinical Consensus Statement: Hallux Valgus

Published:September 03, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2021.08.011
      This document was created to serve as one of a series of clinical consensus statements (CCS) sponsored by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® (ACFAS) (
      • Dayton P
      • DeVries JG
      • Landsman A
      • Meyr AJ
      • Schweinberger M.
      American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: perioperative prophylactic antibiotic use in clean elective foot surgery.
      ,
      • Fleischer AE
      • Abicht BP
      • Baker JR
      • Boffeli TJ
      • Jupiter DC
      • Schade VL.
      American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: risk, prevention, and diagnosis of venous thromboembolism disease in foot and ankle surgery and injuries requiring immobilization.
      ,
      • Meyr AJ
      • Mirmiran R
      • Naldo J
      • Sachs BD
      • Shibuya N.
      American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons’ clinical consensus statement: perioperative management.
      ,
      • Mirmiran R
      • Bush T
      • Cerra MM
      • Grambart S
      • Kauschinger E
      • Younger M
      • Zychowicz M.
      Joint clinical consensus statement of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® and the American Association of Nurse Practioners®: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment consensus for gouty arthritis of the foot and ankle.
      ,
      • Schneider HP
      • Baca J
      • Carpenter B
      • Dayton P
      • Fleischer AE
      • Sachs BD.
      American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: diagnosis and treatment of adult acquired infracalcaneal heel pain.
      ,
      • Piraino JA
      • Theodoulou MH
      • Ortiz J
      • Peterson K
      • Lundquist A
      • Hollawell S
      • Scott RT
      • Joseph R
      • Mahan KT
      • Bresnahan PJ
      • Butto DN
      • Cain JD
      • Ford TC
      • Knight JM
      • Wobst GM.
      American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: appropriate clinical management of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity.
      ,
      • Shibuya N
      • McAlister JE
      • Prissel MA
      • Piraino JA
      • Joseph RM
      • Theodoulou MH
      • Jupiter DC.
      Consensus statement of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons: diagnosis and treatment of ankle arthritis.
      ,
      • Naldo J
      • Agnew P
      • Brucato M
      • Dayton P
      • Shane A.
      ACFAS clinical consensus statement: acute Achilles tendon pathology.
      ). It is important to appreciate that consensus statements do not represent clinical practice guidelines, formal evidence reviews, recommendations, or evidence-based guidelines. Instead, a CCS reflects information synthesized from an organized group of experts based on the best available evidence. Still, it also may contain, and to some degree embraces, opinions, uncertainties, and minority viewpoints. A CCS should open the door to discussion on a topic, as opposed to providing definitive answers.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Dayton P
        • DeVries JG
        • Landsman A
        • Meyr AJ
        • Schweinberger M.
        American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: perioperative prophylactic antibiotic use in clean elective foot surgery.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015; 54: 273-279
        • Fleischer AE
        • Abicht BP
        • Baker JR
        • Boffeli TJ
        • Jupiter DC
        • Schade VL.
        American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: risk, prevention, and diagnosis of venous thromboembolism disease in foot and ankle surgery and injuries requiring immobilization.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015; 54: 497-507
        • Meyr AJ
        • Mirmiran R
        • Naldo J
        • Sachs BD
        • Shibuya N.
        American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons’ clinical consensus statement: perioperative management.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 336-356
        • Mirmiran R
        • Bush T
        • Cerra MM
        • Grambart S
        • Kauschinger E
        • Younger M
        • Zychowicz M.
        Joint clinical consensus statement of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® and the American Association of Nurse Practioners®: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment consensus for gouty arthritis of the foot and ankle.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 1207-1217
        • Schneider HP
        • Baca J
        • Carpenter B
        • Dayton P
        • Fleischer AE
        • Sachs BD.
        American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: diagnosis and treatment of adult acquired infracalcaneal heel pain.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 370-381
        • Piraino JA
        • Theodoulou MH
        • Ortiz J
        • Peterson K
        • Lundquist A
        • Hollawell S
        • Scott RT
        • Joseph R
        • Mahan KT
        • Bresnahan PJ
        • Butto DN
        • Cain JD
        • Ford TC
        • Knight JM
        • Wobst GM.
        American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons® clinical consensus statement: appropriate clinical management of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 59: 347-355
        • Shibuya N
        • McAlister JE
        • Prissel MA
        • Piraino JA
        • Joseph RM
        • Theodoulou MH
        • Jupiter DC.
        Consensus statement of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons: diagnosis and treatment of ankle arthritis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 59: 1019-1031
        • Naldo J
        • Agnew P
        • Brucato M
        • Dayton P
        • Shane A.
        ACFAS clinical consensus statement: acute Achilles tendon pathology.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2021; 60: 93-101
        • Smith GC
        • Pell JP.
        Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma related to gravitational challenge: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
        BMJ. 2003; 327: 1459-1461
        • Dalkey NC
        • Helmer O.
        An experimental application of the Delphi method to the use of experts.
        Manage Sci. 1963; 9: 458-468
        • Park RE
        • Fink A
        • Brook RH
        • Chassin MR
        • Kahn KL
        • Merrick NJ
        • Kosecoff J
        • Solomon DH.
        Physician ratings of appropriate indications for six medical and surgical procedures.
        Am J Public Health. 1986; 76: 766-772
        • Coughlin MJ
        • Mann RA.
        Hallux valgus.
        Surgery of the Foot and Ankle. 8th ed. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia2007: 183-362
        • Mann RA
        • Mann JA.
        Hallux valgus.
        Chapman's Orthopedic Surgery. 3rd ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia2001: 3007-3023
        • Mann JA.
        Hallux valgus, hallux varus, and sesamoid disorders.
        Orthopedic Surgery Essentials. Foot and Ankle. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia2004: 113-130
        • Hansen ST.
        The dysfunctional forefoot.
        Functional Reconstruction of the Foot and Ankle. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia2000: 215-226
        • Jahss MH.
        Disorders of the hallux and the first ray.
        Disorders of the Foot and Ankle. Medical and Surgical Management. 2nd ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1991: 943-1106
        • Haas M.
        Radiographic and biomechanical considerations of bunion surgery.
        Textbook of Bunion Surgery. Futura Publishing Company, Mount Kisco, New York1981: 23-62
        • Martin DE
        • Pontious J.
        Introduction and evaluation of hallux abducto valgus.
        McGlamry's Comprehensive Textbook of Foot and Ankle Surgery. 3rd ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia2001: 481-491
        • Boberg JS.
        Evaluation and procedural selection in hallux valgus surgery.
        McGlamry's Comprehensive Textbook of Foot and Ankle Surgery. 4th ed. Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Lippincott2013: 245-249
        • Myerson MS.
        Hallux valgus.
        Foot and Ankle Disorders. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia2000: 213-288
        • Gudas CJ
        • Marcinko DE.
        The complex deformity known as hallux abducto valgus.
        Comprehensive Textbook of Hallux Abducto Valgus Reconstruction. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis1992: 1-18
        • Hensl HE
        • Sands AK.
        Hallux valgus.
        Foot and Ankle: Core Knowledge in Orthopaedics. Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia2007: 104-118
        • Colman A
        • Pomeroy GC.
        First metatarsophalangeal disorders.
        Foot and Ankle: Core Knowledge in Orthopaedics. Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia2007: 119-128
        • Tollafield DR
        • Kilmartin TE
        • Prior T.
        The adult foot.
        Clinical Skills in Treating the Foot. 2nd ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh2005: 323-365
        • Mooney J
        • Campbell R.
        General foot disorders.
        Neale's Disorders of the Foot. 7th ed. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Edinburgh2006: 89-163
        • Palladino SJ.
        Preoperative evaluation of the bunion patient.
        Textbook of Bunion Surgery. 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia2001: 3-71
        • Richardson EG
        • Donley BG.
        Disorders of the hallux.
        Campbell's Operative Orthopedics. 10th ed. Mosby, St. Louis, 2003: 3915-4015
        • O'Connor PL
        • Baxter DE
        Bunions.
        The Foot Book, Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore, 1998: 206-218
        • DuVries HL.
        Static deformities of the forefoot.
        Surgery of the Foot,2nd ed. The C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis1965: 379-467
        • Kelikian H.
        Hallux Valgus, Allied Deformities of the Forefoot and Metatarsalgia.
        W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia1965: 54-95 (262-33)
        • Giannestras NJ.
        Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus.
        Foot Disorders. Medical and Surgical Management. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia1967: 266-295
        • Lewin P.
        Affections of the great toe.
        The Foot and Ankle. Their Injuries, Diseases, Deformities and Disabilities. 4th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia1959: 124-156
        • Haine ML
        • Orien WP
        • Weed JH.
        Forefoot deformity caused by abnormal subtalar joint pronation.
        Normal and Abnormal Function of the Foot. Clinical Biomechanics Corporation, Los Angeles1977: 295-462
        • Sgarlato TE.
        Pathomechanics of various developmental abnormalities.
        A Compendium of Podiatric Biomechanics. California College of Podiatric Medicine, San Franscisco1971: 369-422
        • Meyr AJ.
        The etiology of hallux valgus described in six pieces.
        Evidence-Based Bunion Surgery. Springer International Publisher, Switzerland2018: 23-41
        • Vanore JV
        • Christensen JC
        • Kravitz SR
        • Schuberth JM
        • Thomas JL
        • Weil LS
        • Zlotoff HJ
        • Medicino RW
        • Couture SD
        Clinical practice guideline first metatarsophalangeal joint disorders panel of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Diagnosis and treatment of first metatarsophalangeal joint disorders. Section 1: Hallux valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003; 42: 112-123
        • Mann RA
        • Coughlin MJ.
        Hallux valgus: etiology, anatomy, treatment and surgical considerations.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981; 157: 31-41
        • Coughlin MJ
        • Jones CP.
        Hallux valgus: demographics, etiology, and radiographic assessment.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2007; 28: 759-777
        • Coughlin MJ
        • Jones CP.
        Hallux valgus and first ray mobility. A prospective study.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007; 89: 1887-1898
        • Inman VT.
        Hallux valgus: a review of etiologic factors.
        Orthop Clin North Am. 1974; 5: 59-66
        • Perera AM
        • Mason L
        • Stephens MM.
        The pathogenesis of hallux valgus.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011; 93: 1650-1661
        • Myerson MS
        • Badekas A.
        Hypermobility of the first ray.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2000; 5: 469-484
        • Clough JG
        • Marshall HJ.
        The etiology of hallux abducto valgus. A review of the literature.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1985; 75: 238-244
        • Sanders AP
        • Weijers RE
        • Snijders CJ
        • Schon LC.
        Three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance images of a displaced flexor hallucis longus tendon in hallux valgus.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005; 95: 401-404
        • Rega R
        • Green DR.
        The extensor hallucis longus and the flexor hallucis longus tendons in hallux abducto valgus.
        J Am Podiatry Assoc. 1978; 68: 467-472
        • Arinci Incel N
        • Genc J
        • Erdem HR
        • Yorgancioglu ZR
        Muscle imbalance in hallux valgus: an electromyographic study.
        Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 82: 345-349
        • Hoffmeyer P
        • Cox JN
        • Blanc Y
        • Meyer JM
        • Taillard W.
        Muscle in hallux valgus.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988; 232: 112-118
        • Shimzaki K
        • Takebe K.
        Investigations on the origin of hallux valgus by electromyographic analysis.
        Kobe J Med Sci. 1991; 27: 139-158
        • Faber FW
        • Kleinrensink GJ
        • Verhoog MW
        • Vijn AJ
        • Snijders CJ
        • Mulder PG
        • Verhaar JA.
        Mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint in relation to hallux valgus deformity: anatomic and biomechanical aspects.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1999; 20: 651-656
        • Uchiyama E
        • Kitaoka HB
        • Luo ZP
        • Grande JP
        • Kura H
        • An KN.
        Pathomechanics of hallux valgus: biomechanical and immunohistochemical study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2005; 26: 732-738
        • Antrobus JN.
        The primary deformity in hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984; 184: 251-255
        • Truslow W.
        Metatarsus primus varus or hallux valgus?.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1925; 7: 98-108
        • Johnson CH
        • Christensen JC.
        Biomechanics of the first ray part 1. The effects of peroneus longus function: a three-dimensional kinematic study on a cadaver model.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 1999; 38: 313-321
        • Rush SM
        • Christensen JC
        • Johnson CH.
        Biomechanics of the first ray. Part II: Metatarsus primus varus as a cause of hypermobility. A three-dimensional kinematic analysis in a cadaver model.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2000; 39: 68-77
        • Turan I.
        Normal and pathologic anatomy of hallux valgus.
        J Foot Surg. 1989; 28: 471-474
        • Haines RW
        • Glasgow AM.
        The anatomy of hallux valgus.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1954; 36B: 272-293
        • Hardy RH
        • Clapham JC.
        Hallux valgus; predisposing anatomical causes.
        Lancet. 1952; 1: 1180-1183
        • Hardy RH
        • Clapham JC.
        Observations on hallux valgus; based on a controlled series.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1951; 33B: 376-391
        • Kato T
        • Watanabe S.
        The etiology of hallux valgus in Japan.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981; 157: 78-81
        • King DM
        • Toolan BC.
        Associated deformities and hypermobility in hallux valgus: an investigation with weightbearing radiographs.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2004; 25: 251-255
        • Laporta G
        • Melillo T
        • Olinsky D.
        X-ray evaluation of hallux abducto valgus deformity.
        J Am Podiatry Assoc. 1974; 64: 544-566
        • Hatch DJ
        • Santrock RD
        • Smith B
        • Dayton P
        • Weil Jr., L
        Triplane hallux abductovalgus classification.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 972-981
        • Ota T
        • Nagura T
        • Kokubo T
        • Kitashiro M
        • Ogihara N
        • Takeshima K
        • Seki H
        • Suda Y
        • Matsumoto M
        • Nakamura M.
        Etiological factors in hallux valgus, a three-dimensional analysis of the first metatarsal.
        J Foot Ankle Res. 2017; 10: 43
        • Dayton P
        • Kauwe M
        • Feilmeier M.
        Is our current paradigm for evaluation and management of the bunion deformity flawed? A discussion of procedure philosophy relative to anatomy.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015; 54: 102-111
        • Nix S
        • Smith M
        • Vicenzino B.
        Prevalence of hallux valgus in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Foot Ankle Res. 2010; 27: 21
        • Meyr AJ
        • Myers A
        • Pontious J.
        Descriptive quantitative analysis of hallux abductovalgus transverse plane radiographic parameters.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 397-404
        • Louwerens JW
        • Schrier JC.
        Rheumatoid forefoot deformity: pathophysiology, evaluation and operative treatment options.
        Int Orthop. 2013; 37: 1719-1729
        • Baskwill D
        • Kanat IO
        Surgical considerations in hallux abducto valgus with rheumatoid arthritis.
        J Foot Surg. 1987; 26: 429-433
        • Yamaguchi S
        • Tanaka Y
        • Shinohara Y
        • Taniguchi A
        • Sasho T
        • Takahashi K
        • Takakura Y.
        Anatomy of hallux valgus in rheumatoid arthritis: radiographic analysis using a two-dimensional coordinate system.
        Mod Rheumatol. 2013; 23: 774-781
        • Matthews M
        • Klein E
        • Acciani A
        • Sorensen M
        • Weil Jr, L
        • Weil Sr LS
        • Fleischer A
        Correlation of preoperative radiographic severity with disability and symptom severity in hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2019; 40: 923-928
        • Matthews M
        • Aseyo Klein E
        • Youssef A
        • Weil Jr L
        • Sorensen M
        • Weil Sr LS
        • Fleischer A
        Correlation of radiographic measurements with patient-centered outcomes in hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2018; 39: 1416-1422
        • Thordarson D
        • Rudicel S
        • Ebramzadeh E
        • Gill L
        Outcome study of hallux valgus surgery – an AOFAS multi-center study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2011; 22: 956-959
        • Thordarson D
        • Ebramzadeh E
        • Moorthy M
        • Lee J
        • Rudicel S.
        Correlation of hallux valgus surgical outcomes with AOFAS forefoot score and radiographic parameters.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2005; 26: 122-127
        • Dux K
        • Smith N
        • Rottier FJ.
        Outcome after metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus: a study of postoperative foot function using revised foot function index short form.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2013; 52: 422-425
        • Meyr AJ
        • Saffran B.
        The pathophysiology of the chronic pain cycle.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2008; 25: 327-346
        • Meyr AJ
        • Creech C.
        Postoperative evaluation and complications.
        Foot and Ankle Radiology. 2nd ed. Wolters Kluwer Heath, Philadelphia2015: 469-484
        • Jastifer JR
        • Coughlin M
        • Doty JF
        • Stevens FR
        • Hirose C
        • Kemp TJ.
        Osteochondral lesions in surgically treated hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2014; 35: 643-649
        • Bock P
        • Kristen KH
        • Kroner A
        • Engel A.
        Hallux valgus and cartilage degeneration in the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004; 86: 669-673
        • Doty JF
        • Coughlin MH
        • Schutt S
        • Hirose C
        • Kennedy M
        • Grebing B
        • Smith B
        • Cooper T
        • Golano P
        • Viladot R
        • Remington R
        Articular chondral damage of the first metatarsal head and sesamoids: analysis of cadaver hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle. 2013; 34: 1090-1096
        • Miller F
        • Arenson D
        • Weil LS.
        Incongruity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The effect on cartilage contact surface area.
        J Am Podiatry Assoc. 1977; 67: 328-333
        • Oh IC
        • Ellis SH
        • O'Malley MJ
        Routine histopathologic evaluation in hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2009; 30: 763-768
        • Mafart B.
        Hallux valgus in a historical French population: paleopathological study of 605 first metatarsal bones.
        Joint Bone Spine. 2007; 74: 166-170
        • Roukis TS
        • Weil LS
        • Weil LS
        • Landsman AS.
        Predicting articular erosion in hallux valgus: clinical, radiographic and intraoperative analysis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005; 44: 13-21
        • Aseyo D
        • Nathan H.
        Hallux sesamoid bones. Anatomical observations with special reference to osteoarthritis and hallux valgus.
        Int Orthop. 1984; 8: 67-73
        • Katsui R
        • Samoto N
        • Taniguchi A
        • Akahane M
        • Isomoto S
        • Sugimoto K
        • Tanaka Y.
        Relationship between displacement and degenerative changes of the sesamoids in hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2016; 37: 1303-1309
        • Meyr AJ
        • Adams ML
        • Sheridan MJ
        • Ahalt RG.
        Epidemiologic aspects of the surgical correction of structural forefoot pathology.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2009; 48: 543-551
        • Chell J
        • Dhar S.
        Pediatric hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2014; 19: 235-243
        • Agnew P.
        Pediatric first ray deformities.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2013; 30: 491-501
        • Coughlin MJ.
        Juvenile hallux valgus: etiology and treatment.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1995; 46: 149-154
        • Piqué-Vidal C
        • Solé MT
        • Antich J.
        Hallux valgus inheritance: pedigree research in 350 patients with bunion deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007; 6: 682-697
        • Amarnek DL
        • Jacobs AM
        • Oloff LM.
        Adolescent hallux valgus: its etiology and surgical management.
        J Foot Surg. 1985; 24: 54-61
        • Kilmartin TE.
        Juvenile hallux abducto valgus.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994; 84: 533-535
        • Reynolds JC.
        Adolescent hallux valgus and bunion.
        The Foot Book. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore1998: 193-205
        • Sung KH
        • Kwon SS
        • Park MS
        • Lee KM
        • Ahn J
        • Lee SY.
        Natural progression of radiographic indices in juvenile hallux valgus deformity.
        Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 25: 378-382
        • Davids JR
        • Mason TA
        • Danko A
        • Banks D
        • Blackhurst D.
        Surgical management of hallux valgus deformity in children with cerebral palsy.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 2001; 21: 89-94
        • Banks AS
        • Hsu YS
        • Mariash S
        • Zirm R.
        Juvenile hallux abducto valgus association with metatarsus adductus.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994; 84: 219-224
        • Kaiser P
        • Livingston K
        • Miller PE
        • May C
        • Mahan S.
        Radiographic evaluation of first metatarsal and medial cuneiform morphology in juvenile hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2018; 39: 1223-1228
        • Vyas S
        • Conduah A
        • Vyas N
        • Otsuka NY.
        The role of the first metarsocuneiform joint in juvenile hallux valgus.
        J Pediatr Orthop B. 2010; 19: 399-402
        • Kalen V
        • Brecher A.
        Relationship between adolescent bunions and flatfeet.
        Foot Ankle. 1988; 8: 331-336
        • Kilmartin TE
        • Wallace WA.
        The significance of pes planus in juvenile hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle. 1992; 1: 53-56
        • Kilmartin TE
        • Wallace WA.
        First metatarsal head shape in juvenile hallux abducto valgus.
        J Foot Surg. 1991; 30: 506-508
        • Kelikian A
        • Mosca V
        • Schoenhaus HD
        • Winson I
        • Weil Jr., L
        When to operate on pediatric flatfoot.
        Foot Ankle Spec. 2011; 4: 112-119
        • Greene JD
        • Nicholson AD
        • Sanders JO
        • Cooperman DR
        • Liu RW.
        Analysis of serial radiographs of the foot to determine normative values for the growth of the first metatarsal to guide hemiepiphysiodesis for immature hallux valgus.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 2017; 37: 338-343
        • Coughlin MJ
        • Carlson RE.
        Treatment of hallux valgus with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle: evaluation of double and triple first ray osteotomies.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1999; 20: 762-770
        • Kraus T
        • Singer G
        • Svehlík M
        • Kaltenbach J
        • Eberl R
        • Linhart W.
        Long-term outcome of chevron-osteotomy in juvenile hallux valgus.
        Acta Orthop Belg. 2013; 79: 552-558
        • Ball J
        • Sullivan JA.
        Treatment of the juvenile bunion by Mitchell osteotomy.
        Orthopedics. 1985; 8: 1249-1252
        • Zimmer TJ
        • Johnson KA
        • Klassen RA.
        Treatment of hallux valgus in adolescents by the Chevron osteotomy.
        Foot Ankle. 1989; 9: 190-193
        • Petratos DV
        • Anastasopoulos JN
        • Plakogiannis CV
        • Matsinos GS.
        Correction of adolescent hallux valgus by proximal crescentic osteotomy of the first metatarsal.
        Acta Orthop Belg. 2008; 74: 496-502
        • Okuda R.
        Proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal for hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2018; 23: 257-269
        • Okuda R
        • Yasuda T
        • Jotoku T
        • Shima H.
        Proximal abduction-supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal for adolescent hallux valgus: a preliminary report.
        J Orthop Sci. 2013; 18: 419-425
        • Lynch FR.
        Applications of the opening wedge cuneiform osteotomy in the surgical repair of juvenile hallux abducto valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 1995; 34: 103-123
        • Agrawal Y
        • Bajaj SK
        • Flowers MJ.
        Scarf-Akin ssteotomy for hallux valgus in juvenile and adolescent patients.
        J Pediatr Orthop B. 2015; 24: 535-540
        • John S
        • Weil Jr, L
        • Weil Sr, LS
        • Chase K.
        Scarf osteotomy for the correction of adolescent hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Spec. 2010; 3: 10-14
        • Johnson AE
        • Georgopoulos G
        • Erickson MA
        • Eilert R.
        Treatment of adolescent hallux valgus with the first metatarsal double osteotomy: the Denver experience.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 2004; 24: 358-362
        • Mathew PG
        • Sponer P
        • Pavlata J
        • Shaikh HH.
        Our experience with double metatarsal osteotomy in the treatment of hallux valgus.
        Acta Med. 2012; 55: 37-41
        • Chiang MH
        • Wang TM
        • Kuo KN
        • Huang SC
        • Wu KW.
        Management of juvenile hallux valgus deformity: the role of combined hemiepiphysiodesis.
        BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019; 20: 472
        • Gicquel T
        • Fraisse B
        • Marleix S
        • Chapuis M
        • Violas P.
        Percutaneous hallux valgus surgery in children: short-term outcomes of 33 cases.
        Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2013; 99: 433-439
        • Myerson M
        • Allon S
        • McGarvey W.
        Metatarsocuneiform arthrodesis for management of hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus.
        Foot Ankle. 1992; 13: 107-115
        • Grace D
        • Delmonte R
        • Catanzariti AR
        • Hofbauer M.
        Modified Lapidus arthrodesis for adolescent hallux abducto valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 1999; 38: 8-13
        • Shinabarger AB
        • Ryan MT
        • Dzurik M
        • Burns PR.
        Isolated first metatarsocuneiform joint fusion for correction of metatarsus primus varus deformity and literature review.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 624-627
        • Wapner KL.
        Conservative treatment of the foot.
        Surgery of the Foot and Ankle. 8th ed. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia2007: 133-149
        • Sammarco VJ
        • Nichols R.
        Orthotic management for disorders of the hallux.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2005; 10: 191-209
        • Doty JF
        • Alvarez RG
        • Ervin TB
        • Heard A
        • Gilbreath J
        • Richardson N.
        Biomechanical evaluation of custom foot orthoses for hallux valgus deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015; 54: 853-855
        • Reina M.
        Effect of custom-made foot orthoses in female hallux valgus after one-year follow-up.
        Prosthet Orthot Int. 2013; 37: 113-119
        • Moulodi M
        • Kamyab M
        • Farzadi M.
        A comparison of the hallux valgus angle, range of motion, and patient satisfaction after use of dynamic and static orthoses.
        Foot (Edinb). 2019; 41: 6-11
        • Landorf KB
        • Keenan AM.
        Efficacy of foot orthoses. What does the literature tell us?.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2000; 90: 149-158
        • Conrad JK
        • Budiman-Mak E
        • Roach KE
        • Hedeker D
        • Caraballada R
        • Burks D
        • Moore H.
        Impacts of foot orthoses on pain and disability in rheumatoid arthritis.
        Clinical Epidemiology. 1996; 49: 1-7
        • Torkki M
        • Malmivaara A
        • Seitsalo S
        • Hoikka V
        • Laippala P
        • Paavolainen P.
        Surgery vs orthosis vs watchful waiting for hallux valgus: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2001; 285: 2474-2480
        • Torkki M
        • Malmivaara A
        • Seitsalo S
        • Hoikka V
        • Laippala P
        • Paavolainen P.
        Hallux valgus: immediate operation versus 1 year of waiting with or without orthoses: a randomized controlled trial of 209 patients.
        Acta Orthop Scand. 2003; 74: 209-215
        • Kilmartin TE
        • Barrington RL
        • Wallace WA.
        A controlled prospective trail of foot orthosis for juvenile hallux valgus.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994; 76: 210-214
        • Plaass C.
        Short term results of dynamic splinting for hallux valgus—a prospective randomize study.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 26: 146-150
        • Arge A.
        Range of motion and pain intensity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in women with hallux valgus deformation after two-month home exercise programme.
        Acta Kinesio. 2012; 18: 111-118
        • Plessis M
        • Zipfel B
        • Brantingham JW
        • Parkin-Smith G
        • Birdsey P
        • Globe G
        • Cassa T.
        Manual and manipulative therapy compared to night splint for symptomatic hallux abducto valgus: an exploratory randomized clinical trial.
        Foot (Edinb). 2011; 21: 71-78
        • Krauss A.
        Comparative radiological examination of hallux valgus night brace and a new dynamic orthosis for correction of the hallux valgus.
        Fus Sprunggelenk. 2008; 6: 14-18
        • Malik J
        • Mathieson I.
        Clinical usage and influence of radiographs in the assessment of hallux valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2013; 52: 291-294
        • Harris RI
        • Beath T.
        Army Foot Survey.
        National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa1947
      1. (edited by)
        • Sanner WH
        Foot segmental relationships and bone morphology.
        in: Christman RA Foot and Ankle Radiology. Churchill Livingstone, St. Louis, Missouri2003: 272-302 (edited by)
      2. (edited by)
        • Weissman SD
        Biomechanically acquired foot types.
        in: Weissman SD Radiology of the Foot. 1983: 66-90 (Philadelphia)
        • Saltzman CL
        • Brandser EA
        • Berbaum KS
        • DeGnore L
        • Homes JR
        • Katcherian DA
        • Teasdall RD
        • Alexander IJ.
        Reliability of standard foot radiographic measurements.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1994; 15: 661-665
        • Coughlin MH
        • Freund E.
        The reliability of angular measurements in hallux valgus deformities.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2001; 22: 369-379
        • Higashi M
        • Shofler D
        • Manji I
        • Penera K.
        Reliability of visual estimation of the first intermetatarsal angle.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 8-9
        • Condon F
        • Kaliszer M
        • Conhyea K
        • O'Donnell T
        • Shaju A
        • Masterson E
        The first intermetatarsal angle in hallux valgus: an analysis of measurement reliability and the error involved.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 717-721
        • Lee KM
        • Ahn S
        • Chung CY
        • Sung KH
        • Park MS.
        Reliability and relationship of radiographic measurements in hallux valgus.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012; 470: 2613-2621
        • Mahmoud K
        • Metikala S
        • Mehta SD
        • Fryhofer GW
        • Farber DC
        • Prat D.
        The role of weightbearing computer tomography scan in hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2021; 42: 287-293
        • Mattos E Dinato MC
        • Freitas MF
        • Milano C
        • Valloto Jr, E
        • Ninomiya AF
        • Pagnano RG.
        Reliability of two smartphone applications for radiographic measurements of hallux valgus angles.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 230-233
        • Chi TD
        • Davitt J
        • Younger A
        • Holt S
        • Sangeorzan BJ.
        Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the distal metatarsal articular angle in adult hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 722-726
        • Ravenell RA
        • Camasta CA
        • Powell DR.
        The unreliability of the intermetatarsal angle in choosing a hallux abducto valgus surgical procedure.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011; 50: 287-292
        • Ege T
        • Kose O
        • Koca K
        • Demiralp B
        • Basboxkurt M.
        Use of the iPhone for radiographic evaluation of hallux valgus.
        Skelet Radiol. 2013; 42: 269-273
        • LaPorta GA
        • Nasser EM
        • Mulhern JL
        • Malay DS.
        The mechanical axis of the first ray: a radiographic assessment in hallux abducto valgus evaluation.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016; 55: 28-34
        • Hasenstein T
        • Meyr AJ.
        Triplanar quantitative radiographic analysis of the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint in the hallux abductovalgus deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 58: 6-74
        • Tanaka Y
        • Takakura Y
        • Kumai T
        • Samoto N
        • Tamai S.
        Radiographic analysis of hallux valgus. A two-dimensional coordinate system.
        J. Bone Joint Surg. 1995; 77: 205-213
        • Saragas NP
        • Becker PJ.
        Comparative radiographic analysis of parameters in feet with and without hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1995; 16: 139-143
        • Lee SY
        • Chung CY
        • Park MS
        • Sung KH
        • Ahmed S
        • Koo S
        • Kang DW
        • Lee KM.
        Radiographic measurements associated with the natural progression of the hallux valgus during at least 2 years of follow-up.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2018; 39: 463-470
        • Couglin MJ
        Hallux valgus in men: effect of the distal metatatarsal angle on hallux valgus correction.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1997; 18: 463-470
        • Kaufmann G
        • Hofer P
        • Braito M
        • Bale R
        • Putzer D
        • Dammerer D.
        Effect of Akin osteotomy on hallux valgus correction after scarf osteotomy with hallux valgus interphalangeus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2019; 40: 1182-1188
        • Strydom A
        • Saragas NP
        • Ferrao PN.
        A radiographic analysis of the contribution of hallux valgus interphalangeus to the total valgus deformity of the hallux.
        Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 23: 27-31
        • Wang X
        • Wen Q
        • Li Y
        • Zhao K
        • Zhao H
        • Liang X.
        Introduction the revolving scarf osteotomy for treating severe hallux valgus with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle: a retrospective cohort study.
        BMC Musculoskeletal Disord. 2019; 20: 508
        • Breslauer C
        • Cohen M.
        Effect of proximal articular set angle-correcting osteotomies on the hallucal sesamoid apparatus: a cadaveric and radiographic investigation.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2001; 40: 366-373
        • Palladino SJ
        • Towfigh A.
        Intra-evaluator variability in the measurement of proximal articular set angle.
        J Foot Surg. 1992; 31: 120-123
        • Maddocks M
        • Nalla S
        • Zipfel B.
        The relationship between the distal metatarsal articular angle and intersesamoidal crista: an osteological study.
        Foot (Edinb). 2017; 30: 5-12
        • Okuda R
        • Kinoshita M
        • Yasuda T
        • Jotoku T
        • Kitano N
        • Shima H.
        The shape of the lateral edge of the first metatarsal head as a risk factor for recurrence of hallux valgus.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007; 89: 2163-2172
        • Ferrari J
        • Malone-Lee J.
        The shape of the metatarsal head as a cause of hallux abductovalgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 236-242
        • Brahm SM.
        Shape of the first metatarsal head in hallux ridigus and hallux valgus.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1988; 78: 300-304
        • Mancuso JE
        • Abramow SP
        • Landsman MJ
        • Waldman M
        • Carioscia M.
        The zero-plus first metatarsal and its relationship to bunion deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003; 42: 319-326
        • Li X
        • Guo M
        • Zhu Y
        • Xu X.
        The excessive length of first ray as a risk factor for hallux valgus recurrence.
        PLoS One. 2018; 13e0205560
        • Munuera PV
        • Polo J
        • Rebollo J.
        Length of the first metatarsal and hallux in hallux valgus in the initial stage.
        Int Orthop. 2008; 32: 489-495
        • Heden RI
        • Sorto Jr., LA
        The buckle point and the metatarsal protrusion's relationship to hallux valgus.
        J Am Podiatry Assoc. 1981; 71: 200-208
        • Grebing B
        • Coughlin M.
        Evaluation of Morton's theory of second metatarsal hypertrophy.
        J Bone Joint Surg. 2004; 86: 1375-1386
        • Roan LY
        • Tanaka Y
        • Taniguchi A
        • Tomiwa K
        • Kumai T
        • Cheng YM.
        Why do the lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2015; 36: 664-672
        • Lenz RC
        • Nagesh D
        • Park HK
        • Grady J.
        First metatarsal head and medial eminence widths with and without hallux valgus.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2016; 106: 323-327
        • Thordarson DB
        • Krewer P.
        Medial eminence thickness with and without hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 48-50
        • Nicholas C
        • Silhanek AD
        • Connolly FG
        • Lombardi CM.
        The effect of first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis on transverse plane deviation of the second toe: a retrospective radiographic study.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005; 44: 365-376
        • Gribbin CK
        • Ellis SJ
        • Nguyen J
        • Williamson E
        • Cody EA.
        Relationship of radiographic and clinical parameters with hallux valgus and second ray pathology.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2017; 38: 14-19
        • Lee KT
        • Park YU
        • Jegal H
        • Young KW
        • Kim JS
        • Lim SY.
        Osteoarthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint associated with hallux valgus deformity.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2014; 35: 1329-1333
        • Kokubo T
        • Hashimoto T
        • Suda Y
        • Waseda A
        • Ikezawa H.
        Radiographic shape of foot with second metatarsophalangeal dislocation associated with hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2017; 38: 1374-1379
        • Erduran M
        • Acar N
        • Demirkiran ND
        • Atalay K.
        The impact of medial cuneiform bone variant measures on the severity of hallux valgus: a radiological study.
        J Orthop Surg. 2017; 25: 1-6
        • Hatch DJ
        • Smith A
        • Fowler T.
        Radiographic relevance of the distal medial cuneiform angle in hallux valgus assessment.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016; 55: 85-89
        • Patel K
        • Hasenstein T
        • Meyr AJ.
        Quantitative assessment of the obliquity of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform articulation.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 58: 679-686
        • Hyer CF
        • Philbin TM
        • Berlet GC
        • Lee TH.
        The obliquity of the first metatarsal base.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2004; 25: 728-732
        • El Said AG
        • Tisdel C
        • Donley B
        • Sferra J
        • Neth D
        • Davis B.
        First metatarsal bone: an anatomic study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2006; 27: 1041-1048
        • Reddy SC.
        Management of hallux valgus in metatarsus adductus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2020; 25: 59-68
        • Kilmartin TE
        • Flintham C.
        Hallux valgus surgery: a simple method for evaluating the first-second intermetatarsal angle in the presence of metatarsus adductus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003; 42: 165-166
        • Aiyer AA
        • Shariff R
        • Ying L
        • Shub J
        • Myerson MS
        Prevalence of metatarsus adductus in patients undergoing hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2014; 35: 1292-1297
        • Loh B
        • Chen JY
        • Yew AKS
        • Chong HC
        • Yeo MG
        • Tao P
        • Yeo ME
        • Koo K
        • Singh IR
        Prevalence of metatarsus adductus in symptomatic hallux valgus and its influence on functional outcome.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2015; 36: 1316-1321
        • La Reaux RL
        • Lee BR
        Metatarsus adductus and hallux abducto valgus: their correlation.
        J Foot Surg. 1987; 26: 304-308
        • Park CH
        • Lee WC.
        Recurrence of hallux valgus can be predicted from immediate postoperative non-weight-bearing radiographs.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017; 99: 1190-1197
        • Shibuya N
        • Jasper J
        • Peterson B
        • Sessions J
        • Jupiter DC.
        Relationships between first metatarsal and sesamoid positions and other clinically relevant parameters for hallux valgus surgery.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 58: 1095-1099
        • Dayton P
        • Kauwe M
        • DiDomenico L
        • Feilmeier M
        • Reimer R.
        Quantitative analysis of the degree of frontal rotation required to anatomically align the first metatarsal phalangeal joint during modified tarsal-metatarsal arthrodesis without capsular balancing.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016; 55: 220-225
        • Dayton P
        • Feilmeier M
        • Kauwe M
        • Hirschi J.
        Relationship of frontal plane rotation of first metatarsal-proximal articular set angle and hallux alignment in patients undergoing tarsometatarsal arthrodesis for hallux abducto valgus: a case series and critical review of literature.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2013; 52: 348-354
        • Dayton P
        • Feilmeier M
        • Kauwe M
        • Holmes C
        • McArdle A
        • Coleman N.
        Observed changes in radiographic measurements of the first ray after frontal and transverse plane rotation of the hallux: does the hallux drive the metatarsal in a bunion deformity?.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 584-587
        • Dayton P
        • Feilmeier M
        • Hirschi J
        • Kauwe M
        • Kauwe JS.
        Observed changes in radiographic measurements of the first ray after frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal in a cadaveric foot model.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 274-278
        • Dayton P
        • Feilmeier M.
        Comparison of tibial sesamoid position on anteroposterior and axial radiographs before and after triplane tarsal metatarsal arthrodesis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 1041-1046
        • Shibuya N
        • Kitterman RT
        • LaFontaine J
        • Jupiter DC.
        Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 168-172
        • Barouk LS.
        The effect of gastrocnemius tightness on the pathogenesis of juvenile hallux valgus: a preliminary study.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2014; 19: 807-822
        • Atbasi Z
        • Erdem Y
        • Kose O
        • Demiralp B
        • Ilkbahar S
        • Tekin HO.
        Relationship between hallux valgus and pes planus: real or fiction?.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 59: 513-517
        • Suh DH
        • Kim JH
        • Park YH
        • Koo BM
        • Choi GW.
        Relationship between hallux valgus and pes planus in adult patients.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2021; 60: 297-301
        • Roukis TS
        • Landsman AS.
        Hypermobility of the first ray: a critical review of the literature.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003; 42: 377-390
        • Root ML
        • Orien WP
        • Weed JH.
        Forefoot deformity caused by abnormal subtalar joint pronation.
        Normal and Abnormal Function of the Foot. Clinical Biomechanics Corporation, Los Angeles1977: 46-51 (350-354)
        • Lee KT
        • Young K.
        Measurement of first-ray mobility in normal vs hallux valgus patients.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2001; 22: 960-964
        • Roling BA
        • Christensen JC
        • Johnson CH.
        Biomechanics of the first ray. Part IV: the effect of selected medial column arthrodeses. A three-dimensional kinematic analysis in a cadaver model.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2002; 41: 278-285
        • King CM
        • Hamilton GA
        • Ford LA.
        Effects of the lapidus arthrodesis and chevron bunionectomy on plantar forefoot pressures.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 415-419
        • Birke JA
        • Don Franks B
        • Foto JG
        First ray limitation, pressure, and ulceration of the first metatarsal head in diabetes mellitus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1996; 17: 157-161
        • Fritz GR
        • Prieskorn D.
        First metatarsocuneiform motion: a radiographic and statistical analysis.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1995; 16: 117-123
        • Glasoe WM
        • Yak J
        • Saltzman CL.
        Measuring first ray hypermobility with a new device.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999; 80: 122-124
        • Klaue K
        • Hansen ST
        • Masquelet AC.
        Clinical, quantitative assessment of first tarsometatarsal mobility in the sagittal plane and its relation to hallux valgus deformity.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1994; 15: 9-13
        • Patel S
        • Ford LA
        • Etcheverry J
        • Rush SM
        • Hamilton GA.
        Modified Lapidus arthrodesis: rate of nonunion in 227 cases.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2004; 43: 37-42
        • Schmid T
        • Krause F.
        The modified Lapidus fusion.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2014; 19: 223-233
        • Doty JF
        • Harris WT.
        Hallux valgus deformity and treatment: a three-dimensional approach.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2018; 23: 271-280
        • Avino A
        • Patel S
        • Hamilton GA
        • Ford LA.
        The effect of the Lapidus arthrodesis on the medial longitudinal arch: a radiographic review.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2008; 47: 510-514
        • Meyr AJ
        • Berkelbach C
        • Dreikorn C
        • Arena T.
        Descriptive quantitative analysis of first metatarsal sagittal plane motion.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 59: 1244-1247
        • Mansur NSB
        • de Souza Nery CA.
        Hypermobility in hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2020; 25: 1-17
        • Dullaert K
        • Hagen J
        • Klos K
        • Gueorguiev B
        • Lenz M
        • Richards RG
        • Simons P.
        The influence of the peroneus longus muscle on the foot under axial loading: a CT evaluated dynamic cadaveric model study.
        Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2016; 34: 7-11
        • Shibuya N
        • Roukis T
        • Jupiter D.
        Mobility of the first ray in patients with or without hallux valgus deformity: systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 1070-1075
        • Hicks JH.
        The mechanics of the foot. Part I: the joints.
        J Anat. 1953; 87: 345-357
        • Saltzman CL
        • Brandser EA
        • Anderson CM
        • Berbaum KS
        • Brown TD.
        Coronal plane rotation of the first metatarsal.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1996; 17: 157-161
        • Ford LA
        • Hamilton GA.
        Procedure selection for hallux valgus.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2009; 26: 395-407
        • Rush SM
        • Jordan T.
        Naviculocuneiform arthrodesis for treatment of medial column instability associated with lateral peritalar subluxation.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2009; 26: 373-384
        • Christensen JC
        • Jennings MM.
        Normal and abnormal function of the first ray.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2009; 26: 355-371
        • Hansen Jr., ST
        Introduction: the first metatarsal: it's importance in the human foot.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2009; 26: 351-354
        • Fleming JJ
        • Kwaadu K
        • Brinkley JC
        • Ozuzu Y.
        Intraoperative evaluation of medial intercuneiform instability after Lapidus arthrodesis: intercuneiform hook test.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015; 54: 464-477
        • Coughlin MJ
        • Jones CP
        • Viladot R
        • Golanó P
        • Grebing BR
        • Kennedy MJ
        • Shurnas PS
        • Alvarez F.
        Hallux valgus and first ray mobility: a cadaveric study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2004; 25: 537-544
        • In Kuhn TS.
        The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
        4th ed. University of Chicago Press, 2012
        • Siddiqui NA
        • LaPorta GA.
        Minimally invasive bunion correction.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2018; 35: 387-402
        • Singh MS
        • Khurana A
        • Kapoor D
        • Katekar S
        • Kumar A
        • Vishwakarma G.
        Minimally invasive vs open distal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus—a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2020; 11: 348-356
        • Lu J
        • Zhao H
        • Liang X
        • Ma Q.
        Comparison on minimally invasive and traditionally open surgeries in correction of hallux valgus: a meta-analysis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 59: 801-806
        • Burg A
        • Palmanovich E.
        Correction of severe hallux valgus with metatarsal adductus applying the concepts of minimally invasive surgery.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2020; 25: 337-343
        • Del Vecchio JJ
        • Ghioldi ME.
        Evolution of minimally invasive surgery in hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2020; 25: 79-95
        • Malagelada F
        • Sahirad C
        • Dalmau-Pastor M
        • Vega J
        • Bhumbra R
        • Manzanares-Cespedes MC
        • Laffenetre O.
        Minimally invasive surgery for hallux valgus: a systematic review of current surgical techniques.
        Int Orthop. 2019; 43: 625-637
        • Vernois J
        • Redfern DJ.
        Percutaneous surgery for severe hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2016; 21: 479-493
        • Siddiqui NA
        • LaPorta G
        • Walsh AL
        • Abraham JS
        • Beauregard S
        • Gdalevitch M.
        Radiographic outcomes of a percutaneous, reproducible distal metatarsal osteotomy for mild and moderate bunions: a multicenter study.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 58: 1215-1222
        • Brogan K
        • Voller T
        • Gee C
        • Borbely T
        • Palmer S.
        Third-generation minimally invasive correction of hallux valgus: technique and early outcomes.
        Int Orthop. 2014; 38: 2115-2121
        • Bia A
        • Guerra-Pinto F
        • Pereira BS
        • Corte-Real N
        • Oliva XM.
        Percutaneous osteotomies in hallux valgus: a systematic review.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 123-130
        • Giannini S
        • Cavallo M
        • Faldini C
        • Luciani D
        • Vannini F.
        The SERI distal metatarsal osteotomy and Scarf osteotomy provide similar correction of hallux valgus.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013; 471: 2305-2311
        • Saro C
        • Andrén B
        • Wildemyr Z
        • Felländer-Tsai L.
        Outcome after distal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus: a prospective randomized controlled trial of two methods.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2007; 28: 778-787
        • Naguib S
        • Derner B
        • Meyr AJ.
        Evaluation of the mechanical axis of the first ray before and after first metatarsal-phalangeal joint reconstructive surgery.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 1140-1142
        • Smith WB
        • Dayton P
        • Santrock RD
        • Hatch DJ.
        Understanding frontal plane correction in hallux valgus repair.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2018; 35: 27-36
        • Zambelli R.
        • Baumfeld D.
        Intraoperative and postoperative evaluation of hallux valgus correction: what is important?.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2020; 25: 127-139
        • Charalampous C.
        One common matter’ in Descartes’ physics: the Cartesian concepts of matter, quantities, weight and gravity.
        Ann Sci. 2019; 76: 324-339
        • Yammine K
        • Assi C.
        A meta-analysis of comparative clinical studies of isolated osteotomy versus osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release in treating hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 25: 684-690
        • Lee HJ
        • Chung JW
        • Chu IT
        • Kim YC.
        Comparison of distal chevron osteotomy with and without lateral soft tissue release for the treatment of hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2010; 31: 291-295
        • Grle M
        • Vrgoc G
        • Bohacek I
        • Hohnjec V
        • Martinac M
        • Brkic I
        • Stefran L
        • Jotanovic Z.
        Surgical treatment of moderate hallux valgus: a comparison distal Chevron osteotomy with and without lateral soft-tissue release.
        Foot Ankle Spec. 2017; 10: 524-530
        • Granberry WM
        • Hickey CH.
        Hallux valgus correction with metatarsal osteotomy: effect of a lateral distal soft tissue procedure.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1995; 16: 132-138
        • Lombardi CM
        • Silhanek AD
        • Connolly FG
        • Suh D
        • Violand M.
        First metatarso cuneiform arthrodesis and Reverdin-Laird osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus: an intermediate-term retrospective outcomes study.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003; 42: 77-85
        • Salvi AE
        • Mondanelli N.
        The Reverdin hallux valgus correction: back to the future.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011; 50: 267-268
        • Park CH
        • Lee WC.
        Is double metatarsal osteotomy superior to proximal Chevron osteotomy in treatment of hallux valgus with increased distal metatarsal articular angle?.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 241-246
        • Park CH
        • Cho JH
        • Moon JJ
        • Lee WC.
        Can double osteotomy be a solution for adult hallux valgus deformity with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle?.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016; 55: 188-192
        • Lechler P
        • Feldmann C
        • Kock FX
        • Schaumburger J
        • Grifka J
        • Handel M.
        Clinical outcome after Chevron-Akin double osteotomy versus isolated Chevron procedure: a prospective matched group analysis.
        Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012; 132: 9-13
        • Coughlin MJ
        • Carlson RE.
        Treatment of hallux valgus with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle: evaluation of double and triple ray osteotomies.
        Foot Ankle Int 1999. 1999; 20: 762-770
        • Wood EV
        • Walker CR
        • Hennessy MS.
        First metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis for hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2014; 19: 245-258
        • Little JB.
        First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis in the treatment of hallux valgus.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2014; 31: 281-289
        • Brodsky JW
        • Passmore RN
        • Pollo FE
        • Shabat S.
        Functional outcome of arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint using parallel screw fixation.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2005; 26: 140-146
        • DeSandis B
        • Pino A
        • Levine DS
        • Roberts M
        • Deland J
        • O’Malley MO
        • Elliott A
        Functional outcomes following first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2016; 37: 715-721
        • Brodsky JW
        • Baum BS
        • Pollo FE
        • Mehta H.
        Prospective gait analysis in patients with first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis for hallux rigidus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2007; 28: 162-165
        • Sharma J
        • Aydogan U.
        Algorithm for severe hallux valgus associated with metatarsus adductus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2015; 36: 1499-1503
        • Heyes GJ
        • Vosoughi AR
        • Weigelt L
        • Mason L
        • Molloy A.
        Pes planus deformity and its association with hallux valgus recurrence following scarf osteotomy.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2020; 41: 1212-1218
        • Blackwood S
        • Gossett L.
        Hallux valgus/medial column instability and their relationship with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2018; 23: 297-313
        • Steinberg N
        • Finestone A
        • Noff M
        • Zeev A
        • Dar G.
        Relationship between lower extremity alignment and hallux valgus in women.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2013; 34: 824-831
        • Dayton P
        • Feilmeier M
        • Hunziker B
        • Nielson T
        • Reimer RA.
        Reduction of the intermetatarsal angle after first metatarsal phalangeal joint arthrodesis: a systematic review.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 620-623
        • Pydah SK
        • Toh EM
        • Sirikonda SP
        • Walker CR.
        Intermetatarsal angular change following fusion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2009; 30: 415-418
        • Sung W
        • Kluesner AJ
        • Irrgang J
        • Burns P
        • Wukich DK.
        Radiographic outcomes following primary arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in hallux abductovalgus deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2010; 49: 446-451
        • Feilmeier M
        • Dayton P
        • Wienke JC.
        Reduction of intermetatarsal angle after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis in patients with hallux valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 29-31
        • Dayton P
        • LoPiccolo J
        • Kiley J.
        Reduction of the intermetatarsal angle after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis in patients with moderate and severe metatarsus primus adductus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2002; 41: 316-319
        • McKean M.
        Radiographic evaluation of intermetatarsal angle correction following first MTP joint arthrodesis for severe hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2016; 37: 1183-1186
        • Dalat F
        • Cottalorda F
        • Fessy MH
        • Besse JL.
        Does arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint correct the intermetatarsal M1M2 angle? Analysis of a continuous series of 208 arthrodesis fixed with plates.
        Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2015; 101: 709-714
        • Dayton P
        • Kauwe M
        • Feilmeier M.
        Clarification of the anatomic definition of the bunion deformity.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014; 53: 160-163
        • Dayton P
        • Carvalho S
        • Egdorf R
        • Dayton M.
        Comparison of radiographic measurements before and after triplane tarsometatarsal arthrodesis for hallux valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 59: 291-297
        • Willegger M
        • Holinka J
        • Ristl R
        • Wavinhaus AH
        • Windhager R
        • Schuh R.
        Correction power and complications of first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis for hallux valgus deformity.
        Int Orthop. 2015; 39: 467-476
        • Myers SR
        • Herndon JH.
        Silastic implant arthroplasty with proximal metatarsal osteotomy for painful hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle. 1990; 10: 219-223
        • Miller RJ
        • Rattan N
        • Sorto L.
        The geriatric bunion: correction of metatarsus primus varus and hallux valgus with the Swanson total joint implant.
        J Foot Surg. 1983; 22: 263-270
        • Partio N
        • Ponkilainen VT
        • Rinkinen V
        • Honkanen P
        • Haapasalo H
        • Laine HJ
        • Maenpaa HM.
        Interpositional arthroplasty of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with bioresorbable Pldla implant in the treatment of hallux rigidus and arthritic hallux valgus: a 9-year case series follow-up.
        Scand J Surg. 2021; 110: 93-98
        • Furikado K
        • Fujioka H
        • Doita M
        • Saura R
        • Ishikawa H
        • Kurosaka M.
        Use of grommet for Swanson flexible hinge toe implant arthroplasty for hallux valgus deformity of rheumatoid arthritis.
        Ryumachi. 2002; 42: 879-884
        • Bierman RA
        • Christensen JC
        • Johnson CH.
        Biomechanics of the First Ray. Part III, Consequences of Lapidus arthrodesis on peroneus longus function: a three-dimensional kinematic analysis in a cadaver model.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2001; 40: 125-131
        • Donegan RJ
        • Blume PA.
        Functional results and patient satisfaction of first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis using dual crossed screw fixation.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 291-297
        • Coughlin MJ
        • Grebing BR
        • Jones CP.
        Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint for idiopathic hallux valgus: intermediate results.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2005; 26: 783-792
        • Raiken SM
        • Miller AG
        • Daniel J.
        Recurrence of hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2014; 19: 259-274
        • Jeuken RM
        • Schotanus MG
        • Kort NP
        • Deenik A
        • Jong B
        Hendrickx. Long term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing scarf to chevron osteotomy in hallux valgus correction.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2016; 27: 687-695
        • McAlister JE
        • Peterson KS
        • Hyer CF.
        Corrective realignment arthrodesis of the first tarsometatarsal joint without wedge resection.
        Foot Ankle Spec. 2014; 8: 284-288
        • Sorensen MD
        • Hyer CF
        • Berlet GC.
        Results of Lapidus arthrodesis and locked plating with early weight bearing.
        Foot Ankle Spec. 2009; 2: 227-233
        • Amin TH
        • Rathnayake V
        • Ramil M
        • Spinner SM.
        An innovative application of a computer aided design and manufacture implant for first metatarsal phlanageal joint arthrodesis: a case report.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020; 59: 1287-1293
        • Sangeorzan BJ
        • Hansen ST.
        Modified Lapidus procedure for hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle. 1989; 9: 262-266
        • Catanzariti AR
        • Mendicino RW
        • Lee MS
        • Gallina MR.
        The modified Lapidus arthrodesis: a retrospective analysis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 1999; 38: 322-332
        • Fleming L
        • Savage TJ
        • Paden MH
        • Stone PA.
        Results of modified Lapidus arthrodesis procedure using medial eminence as an interpositional autograft.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011; 50: 272-275
        • Prissel MA
        • Hyer CF
        • Grambart ST
        • Bussewitz BT
        • Brigido SA
        • DiDomenico LA
        • Lee MS
        • Reeves CL
        • Shane AM
        • Tucker DJ
        Weinraub. A multicenter, retrospective study of early weightbearing for modified Lapidus arthrodesis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016; 55: 226-229
        • King CM
        • Richey J
        • Patel S
        • Collman DR.
        Modified Lapidus arthrodesis with crossed screw fixation: early weightbearing in 136 patients.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015; 54: 69-75
        • Kumar S
        • Pradhan R
        • Rosenfeld PF.
        First metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis using a dorsal plate and a compression screw.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2010; 31: 797-801
        • Ellington JK
        • Jones CP
        • Cohen BE
        • Davis WH
        • Nickisch F
        • Anderson RB
        Review of 107 hallux MTP joint arthrodesis using dome-shaped reamers and a stainless-steel dorsal plate.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2010; 31: 385-390
        • Goucher NR
        • Coughlin MJ.
        Hallux metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis using dome-shaped reamers and dorsal plate fixation: a prospective study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2006; 27: 869-876
        • Raikin SM
        • Miller AG
        • Daniel J.
        Recurrence of hallux valgus: a review.
        Foot Ankle Clin. 2014; 19: 259-274
        • Austin DW
        • Leventen EO.
        A new osteotomy for hallux valgus: a horizontally directed “V” displacement osteotomy of the metatarsal head for hallux valgus and primus varus.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981; 157: 25-30
        • Shibuya N
        • Kyprios EM
        • Panchani PN
        • Martin LR
        • Thorud JC
        • Jupiter DC.
        Factors associated with early loss of hallux valgus correction.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 236-240
        • Baravarian B
        • Ben-Ad R.
        Revision hallux valgus: causes and correction options.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2014; 31: 291-298
        • Shibuya N
        • Thorud JC
        • Martin LR
        • Plemmons BS
        • Jupiter DC.
        Evaluation of hallux valgus correction with versus without Akin proximal phalanx osteotomy.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016; 55: 910-914
        • Okuda R
        • Kinoshita M
        • Yasuda T
        • Jotoku T
        • Kitano N
        • Shima H.
        Postoperative incomplete reduction of the sesamoids as a risk factor for recurrence of hallux valgus.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009; 91: 1637-1645
        • Barp EA
        • Erickson JG
        • Smith HL
        • Almeida K
        • Millonig K.
        Evaluation of fixation techniques for metatarsocuneiform arthrodesis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 468-473
        • Boffeli TJ
        • Hyllengren SB.
        Can we abandon saw wedge resection in Lapidus fusion? A comparative study of joint preparation techniques regarding correction of deformity, union rate, and preservation of first ray length.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 58: 1118-1124
        • Cottom JM
        • Rigby RB.
        Biomechanical comparison of a locking plate with intraplate compression screw versus locking plate with plantar interfragmentary screw for Lapidus arthrodesis: a cadaveric study.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2013; 52: 339-342
        • Ghimire S
        • Miramini S
        • Richardson M
        • Mendis P
        • Zhang L.
        Role of dynamic loading on early stage of bone fracture healing.
        Ann Biomed Eng. 2018; 46: 1768-1784
        • Ganadhiepan G
        • Zhang L
        • Miramini S
        • Mendis P
        • Patel M
        • Ebeling P
        • Wang Y.
        The effects of dynamic loading on bone fracture healing under Ilizarov circular fixators.
        J Biomech Eng. 2019;
        • Kalish SR
        • Spector JE.
        The Kalish osteotomy. A review and retrospective analysis of 265 cases.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994; 84: 237-242
        • Kristen KH
        • Berger C
        • Stelzig S
        • Thalhammer E
        • Posch M
        • Engel A.
        The SCARF osteotomy for the correction of hallux valgus deformities.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 221-229
        • Kubiak EN
        • Beebe MJ
        • North K
        • Hitchcock R
        • Potter MQ.
        Early weight bearing after lower extremity fractures in adults.
        J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2013; 21: 727-738
        • Mittag F
        • Leichtle U
        • Meisner C
        • Ipach I
        • Wulker N
        • Wunschel M.
        Proximal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus: an audit of radiologic outcome after single screw fixation and full postoperative weightbearing.
        J Foot Ankle Res. 2013; 6: 22
        • Neufeld SK
        • Marcel JJ
        • Campbell M.
        Immediate weight bearing after hallux valgus correction using locking plate fixation of the Ludloff osteotomy: a retrospective review.
        Foot Ankle Spec. 2018; 11: 148-155
        • Saxena A
        • Nguyen A
        • Nelsen E
        Lapidus bunionectomy: early evaluation of crossed lag screws versus locking plate with plantar lag screw.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2009; 48: 170-179
        • Wanivenhaus F
        • Espinosa N
        • Tscholl PM
        • Krause F
        • Wirth S.
        Quality of early union after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017; 56: 50-53
        • Crowell A
        • Van JC
        • Meyr AJ.
        Early weight-bearing after arthrodesis of the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint: a systematic review of the incidence of non-union.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 1200-1203
        • Crowell A
        • Van JC
        • Meyr AJ.
        Early weightbearing after arthrodesis of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform joint: a systematic review of the incidence of nonunion.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 1204-1206
        • Hawson ST.
        Physical therapy post-hallux abducto valgus correction.
        Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2014; 31: 309-322
        • Schuh R
        • Hofstaetter SG
        • Adams SB
        • Pinchler F
        • Kristen KH
        • Trnka H.
        Rehabilitation after hallux valgus surgery: importance of physical therapy to restore weight bearing of the first ray during stance phase.
        Phys Ther. 2009; 89: 934-945
        • Schuh R
        • Adams S
        • Hofstaetter SG
        • Krismer M
        • Trnka HJ.
        Plantar loading after chevron osteotomy combined with postoperative physical therapy.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2010; 31: 980-986
        • Connor JC
        • Berk DM
        • Hotz MW.
        Effects of continuous passive motion following Austin bunionectomy. A prospective review.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1995; 85: 744-748
        • Bryant AR
        • Tinley P
        • Cole JH.
        Plantar pressure and radiographic changes to the forefoot after the Austin bunionectomy.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005; 95: 357-365
        • Dhukaram V
        • Hullin MG
        • Senthil Kumar C.
        The Mitchell and Scarf osteotomies for hallux valgus correction: a retrospective, comparative analysis using plantar pressures.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2006; 45: 400-409
        • Weil Jr LS
        • Benton-Weil W
        Postoperative hallux valgus exercises.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 1998; 37: 355
        • Klugarova J
        • Hood V
        • Bath-Hextall F
        • Klugar M
        • Mareckova J
        • Kelnarova Z.
        Effectiveness of surgery for adults with hallux valgus deformity: a systematic review.
        JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep. 2017; 15: 1671-1710
        • Schrier JCM
        • Palmen LN
        • Verheyen C
        • eJansen J
        • Koeter S
        Patient-reported outcome measures in hallux valgus surgery. A review of literature.
        Foot Ankle Surg. 2015; 21: 11-15
        • Dawson J
        • Doll H
        • Coffey J
        • Jenkinson C
        • Oxford and Birmingham Foot and Ankle Clinical Research Group
        Responsiveness and minimally important change for the Manchester-Oxford foot questionnaire (MOXFQ) compared with AOFAS and SF 36 assessments following surgery for hallux valgus.
        OsteoArthritis Cartilage. 2007; 15: 918-931
        • Nixon DC
        • McCormick JJ
        • Johnson JE
        • Klein SE.
        PROMIS Pain Interference and Physical Function Scores Correlate With the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in patients with hallux valgus.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017; 475: 2775-2780
        • Cook JJ
        • Cook EA
        • Rosenblum BI
        • Landsman AS
        • Roukis TS.
        Validation of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons scoring scales.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011; 50: 420-429
        • Chan HY
        • Chen JY
        • Zainul-Abidin S
        • Ying H
        • Koo K
        • Rikhraj IS.
        Minimal clinically important differences for American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score in hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2017; 38: 551-557
        • Chopra S
        • Moerenhout K
        • Crevoisier X.
        Subjective versus objective assessment in early clinical outcome of modified Lapidus procedure for hallux valgus deformity.
        Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2016; 32: 187-193
        • Button G
        • Pinney S.
        A meta-analysis of outcome rating scales in foot and ankle surgery: is there a valid, reliable, and responsive system?.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2004; 25: 521-525
        • Hunt KJ
        • Hurwit D.
        Use of patient-reported outcome measures in foot and ankle research.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013; 95: e118
        • Ibrahim T
        • Beiri A
        • Azzabi M
        • Best AJ
        • Taylor GJ
        • Menon DK.
        Reliability and validity of the subjective component of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society clinical ratings scale.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007; 46: 65-74
        • SooHoo NF
        • Shuler M
        • Fleming LL
        • American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society
        Evaluation of the validity of the AOFAS Clinical Rating Systems by correlation to the SF-36.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2003; 24: 50-55
        • Lim WSR
        • Liow MHL
        • Rikhraj IS
        • Goh GSH
        • Koo K.
        The effect of gender in hallux valgus surgery. A propensity score matched study.
        Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 25: 670-673
        • Shima H
        • Okuda R
        • Yasuda T
        • Mori K
        • Kizawa M
        • Tsujinaka S
        • Neo M.
        Operative treatment for hallux valgus with moderate to severe metatarsus adductus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2019; 40: 641-647
        • Stith A
        • Dang D
        • Griffin M
        • Flint W
        • Hirose C
        • Coughlin M.
        Rigid internal fixation of proximal crescentic metatarsal osteotomy in hallux valgus correction.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2019; 40: 778-789
        • Choi GW
        • Kim HJ
        • Kim TS
        • Chun SK
        • Kim TW
        • Lee YI
        • Kim KH.
        Comparison of the modified McBride procedure and the distal chevron osteotomy for mild to moderate hallux valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016; 55: 808-811
        • Young KW
        • Lee HS
        • Park SC.
        Modified proximal Scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus.
        Clin Orthop Surg. 2018; 10: 479-483
        • McDonald L
        • Shakked R
        • Daniel J
        • Pedowitz DI
        • Winters BS
        • Reb C
        • Lynch MK
        • Raikin SM.
        Driving after hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2017; 38: 982-986
        • Sutton RM
        • McDonald EL
        • Shakked RJ
        • Fuchs D
        • Raikin SM.
        Determination of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) in visual analog scale (VAS) pain and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) scores after hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2019; 40: 687-693
        • Komur B
        • Yilmaz B
        • Kaan E
        • Yucel B
        • Duymus TM
        • Ozdemir G
        • Guler O.
        Mid-term results of two different fixation methods for chevron osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018; 57: 904-909
        • Coetzee JC
        • Wickum D.
        The Lapidus procedure: a prospective cohort outcome study.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2004; 25: 526-531
        • Chao JC
        • Charlick D
        • Tocci S
        • Brodsky JW.
        Radiographic and clinical outcomes of joint-preserving procedures for hallux valgus in rheumatoid arthritis.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2013; 34: 1638-1644
        • Choi JH
        • Zide JR
        • Coleman SC
        • Brodsky JW.
        Prospective study of the treatment of adult primary hallux valgus with scarf osteotomy and soft tissue realignment.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2013; 34: 684-690
        • Bock P
        • Kluger R
        • Kristen KH
        • Mittlbock M
        • Schuh R
        • Trnka HJ.
        The scarf osteotomy with minimally invasive lateral release for treatment of hallux valgus deformity: intermediate and long-term results.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015; 97: 1238-1245
        • Robinson AH
        • Bhatia M
        • Eaton C
        • Bishop L.
        Prospective comparative study of the scarf and Ludloff osteotomies in the treatment of hallux valgus.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2009; 30: 955-963
        • Neese DJ
        • Zelent ME.
        The modified Mau-Reverdin double osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus: a retrospective study.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2009; 48: 22-29
        • Dennis NZ
        • De SD
        Modified Mitchell's osteotomy for moderate to severe hallux valgus—an outcome study.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011; 50: 50-54
        • Lipscombe S
        • Molloy A
        • Sirikonda S
        • Hennessy MS.
        Scarf osteotomy for the correction of hallux valgus: midterm clinical outcome.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2008; 47: 273-277
        • Chong A
        • Nazarian N
        • Chandrananth J
        • Tacey M
        • Shepherd D
        • Tran P.
        Surgery for the correction of hallux valgus: minimum five-year results with a validated patient-reported outcome tool and regression analysis.
        Bone Joint J. 2015; (97-B): 208-214
        • Nilsdotter AK
        • Coster ME
        • Bremander A
        • Coster MC.
        Patient-reported outcome after hallux valgus surgery—a two year follow up.
        Foot Ankle Surg. 2019; 25: 478-481
        • Chen JY
        • Ang BFH
        • Jiang L
        • Yeo NEM
        • Koo K
        • Rikhraj IS.
        Pain resolution after hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2016; 37: 1071-1075
        • Sutherland JM
        • Wing K
        • Younger A
        • Penner M
        • Veljkovic A
        • Liu G
        • Crump T.
        Relationship of duration of wait for surgery and postoperative patient-reported outcomes for hallux valgus surgery.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2018; 40: 259-267
        • Baumhauer JF
        • Nawoczenski DA
        • DiGiovanni BF
        • Wilding GE.
        Reliability and validity of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Clinical Rating Scale: a pilot study for the hallux and lesser toes.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2006; 27: 1014-1019
        • Madeley NJ
        • Wing KJ
        • Topliss C
        • Penner MJ
        • Glazebrook MA
        • Younger AS
        Responsiveness and validity of the SF-36, Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale, AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot Score, and Foot Function Index in end stage ankle arthritis.
        Foot Ankle Int. 2012; 33: 57-63
        • Snyder CF
        • Aaronson NK.
        Use of patient-reported outcomes in clinical practice.
        Lancet. 2009; 374: 369-370
        • Walijee JF
        • Nellans K.
        Quality assessment in hand surgery.
        Hand Clin. 2014; 30: 259-268
        • Andrawis JP
        • Chenok KE
        • Bozic KJ.
        Health policy implications of outcomes measurement in orthopaedics.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013; 471: 3475-3481
        • Chow A
        • Mayer EK
        • Darzi AW
        • Athanasiou T.
        Patient-reported outcome measures: the importance of patient satisfaction in surgery.
        Surgery. 2009; 146: 435-443
        • Shirley ED
        • Sanders JO.
        Patient satisfaction: implications and predictors of success.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013; 95: e69
        • Jackson JL
        • Chamberlin J
        • Kroenke K.
        Predictors of patient satisfaction.
        Soc Sci Med. 2001; 52: 609-620