Research Article| Volume 62, ISSUE 1, P85-90, January 2023

Quality and Content Analysis of Hallux Valgus Videos on YouTube®


      Our aim in this study is to analyze the content and quality of the videos about hallux valgus on YouTube®. The first 50 videos published by typing “hallux valgus” in the search engine on the YouTube® site were analyzed. The number of views of all videos, likes, dislikes, who uploaded the video, video duration, content, watch rate, and how many days it was uploaded were analyzed and recorded. All videos were analyzed with Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), DISCERN, GQS, and VPI scores. Six of the videos (12%) were from academic sources, 14 (28%) from commercial product vendors, 13 (26%) by medical animation organizers, 8 (16%) by physicians, 4 (8%) by physiotherapists, 2 (4%) by physical training trainers, 1 (2%) by patients, and last 2 (4%) by trainers. The JAMA mean score of the videos was recorded as 2 (1-4), GQS 3.02 (2-5), DISCERN score 37.56 (26-68), and Video Power Index 41.35 (0-470). The quality of YouTube® videos about hallux valgus is low. The content and quality of health-related information obtained through the Internet are of increasing importance for both healthcare professionals and patients.

      Level of Clinical Evidence


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


      1., Y.s.

        • Kunst H.
        • Groot D.
        • Latthe P.M.
        • Latthe M.
        • Khan K.S.
        Accuracy of information on apparently credible websites: survey of five common health topics.
        BMJ. 2002; 324: 581-582
        • Murray E.
        • Lo B
        • Pollack L
        • Donelan K
        • Catania J
        • Lee K
        • Zapert K
        • Turner R
        The impact of health information on the internet on health care and the physician-patient relationship: National U.S. Survey among 1.050 U.S. physicians.
        J Med Internet Res. 2003; 5: e17
        • Nix S.
        • Smith M.
        • Vicenzino B.
        Prevalence of hallux valgus in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Foot Ankle Res. 2010; 3: 21
        • Ng M.K.
        • Emara A.K.
        • Molloy R.M.
        • Krebs V.E.
        • Mont M.
        • Piuzzi N.S.
        YouTube as a source of patient information for total knee/hip arthroplasty: quantitative analysis of video reliability, quality, and content.
        J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2021; 29: e1034-e1044
        • Celik H.
        • Polat O.
        • Ozcan C.
        • Camur S.
        • Kilinc B.E.
        • Uzun M.
        Assessment of the quality and reliability of the information on rotator cuff repair on YouTube.
        Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2020; 106: 31-34
        • D., C.
        The DISCERN Handbook: Quality Criteria for Consumer Health Information on Treatment Choices.
        Radcliffe Medical Press, UK1998
        • Silberg W.M.
        • Lundberg G.D.
        • Musacchio R.A.
        Assessing, controlling, and assuring the quality of medical information on the Internet: Caveant lector et viewor–Let the reader and viewer beware.
        JAMA. 1997; 277: 1244-1245
        • Bernard A.
        • Langille M.
        • Hughes S.
        • Rose C.
        • Leddin D.
        • Veldhuyzen van Zanten S.
        A systematic review of patient inflammatory bowel disease information resources on the World Wide Web.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 2070-2077
        • Drozd B.
        • Couvillon E.
        • Suarez A.
        Medical YouTube videos and methods of evaluation: literature review.
        JMIR Med Educ. 2018; 4: e3
        • Mukewar S.
        • Mani P.
        • Wu X.
        • Lopez R.
        • Shen B.
        YouTube and inflammatory bowel disease.
        J Crohns Colitis. 2013; 7: 392-402
        • Benetoli A.
        • Chen T.F.
        • Aslani P.
        Consumer health-related activities on social media: exploratory study.
        J Med Internet Res. 2017; 19: e352
        • Madathil K.C.
        • Rivera-Rodriguez A.J.
        • Greenstein J.S.
        • Gramopadhye A.K.
        Healthcare information on YouTube: a systematic review.
        Health Inform J. 2015; 21: 173-194
        • Duncan I.C.
        • Kane P.W.
        • Lawson K.A.
        • Cohen S.B.
        • Ciccotti M.G.
        • Dodson C.C.
        Evaluation of information available on the Internet regarding anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
        Arthroscopy. 2013; 29: 1101-1107
        • Bruce-Brand R.A.
        • Baker J.F.
        • Byrne D.P.
        • Hogan N.A.
        • McCarthy T.
        Assessment of the quality and content of information on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the internet.
        Arthroscopy. 2013; 29: 1095-1100
        • Winship B.
        • Grisell M.
        • Yang C.B.
        • Chen R.X.
        • Bauer A.S.
        The quality of pediatric orthopaedic information on the internet.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 2014; 34: 474-477
        • Dy C.J.
        • Taylor S.A.
        • Patel R.M.
        • Kitay A.
        • Roberts T.R.
        • Daluiski A.
        The effect of search term on the quality and accuracy of online information regarding distal radius fractures.
        J Hand Surg Am. 2012; 37: 1881-1887
        • Beredjiklian P.K.
        • Bozentka D.J.
        • Steinberg D.R.
        • Bernstein J.
        Evaluating the source and content of orthopaedic information on the Internet. The case of carpal tunnel syndrome.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000; 82: 1540-1543
        • Morr S.
        • Shanti N.
        • Carrer A.
        • Kubeck J.
        • Gerling M.C.
        Quality of information concerning cervical disc herniation on the Internet.
        Spine J. 2010; 10: 350-354
        • Sambandam S.N.
        • Ramasamy V.
        • Priyanka P.
        • Ilango B.
        Quality analysis of patient information about knee arthroscopy on the world wide web.
        Arthroscopy. 2007; 23 (e2): 509-513
        • Starman J.S.
        • Gettys F.K.
        • Capo J.A.
        • Fleischli J.E.
        • Norton H.J.
        • Karunakar M.A.
        Quality and content of internet-based information for ten common orthopaedic sports medicine diagnoses.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010; 92: 1612-1618
        • Cassidy J.T.
        • Fitzgerald E.
        • Cassidy E.S.
        • Cleary M.
        • Byrne D.P.
        • Devitt B.M.
        • Baker J.F.
        YouTube provides poor information regarding anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction.
        Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018; 26: 840-845
        • Tekin S.B.
        • Öğümsöğütlü E.J.B.M.B.
        Assessment of the quality and reliability of the information on bone tumor on YouTube.
        Bagcilar Med Bull. 2020; 5: 133-137
        • Haymes A.T.
        • Harries V.
        'How to stop a nosebleed': an assessment of the quality of epistaxis treatment advice on YouTube.
        J Laryngol Otol. 2016; 130: 749-754
        • Gonzalez-Estrada A.
        • Cuervo-Pardo L.
        • Ghosh B.
        • Smith M.
        • Pazheri F.
        • Zell K.
        • Wang X.F.
        • Lang D.M.
        Popular on YouTube: a critical appraisal of the educational quality of information regarding asthma.
        Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015; 36: e121-e126
        • Chang M.C.
        • Park D.
        YouTube as a source of information on epidural steroid injection.
        J Pain Res. 2021; 14: 1353-1357
        • Lim S.T.
        • Kelly M.
        • O’Neill S.
        • D’Souza L.
        Assessing the quality and readability of online resources for plantar fasciitis.
        J Foot Ankle Surg. 2021; 60: 1175-1178
        • Mert A.
        • Bozgeyik B.
        Quality and content analysis of carpal tunnel videos on YouTube.
        Indian J Orthop. 2021; 56: 73-78
        • Ozsoy-Unubol T.
        • Alanbay-Yagci E.
        YouTube as a source of information on fibromyalgia.
        Int J Rheum Dis. 2021; 24: 197-202
        • Kunze K.N.
        • Krivicich L.M.
        • Verma N.N.
        • Chahla J.
        Quality of online video resources concerning patient education for the meniscus: a YouTube-based quality-control study.
        Arthroscopy. 2020; 36: 233-238
        • Jildeh T.R.
        • Abbas M.J.
        • Abbas L.
        • Washington K.J.
        • Okoroha K.R.
        YouTube is a poor-quality source for patient information on rehabilitation and return to sports after Hip arthroscopy.
        Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil. 2021; 3: e1055-e1063
        • Ovenden C.D.
        • Brooks F.M.
        Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion YouTube videos as a source of patient education.
        Asian Spine J. 2018; 12: 987-991
        • Brooks F.M.
        • Lawrence H.
        • Jonesx A.
        • McCarthy M.J.
        YouTubeTM as a source of patient information for lumbar discectomy.
        Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2014; 96: 144-146
        • Fischer J.
        • Geurts J.
        • Valderrabano V.
        • Hügle T.
        Educational quality of YouTube videos on knee arthrocentesis.
        J Clin Rheumatol. 2013; 19: 373-376
        • Erdem M.N.
        • Karaca S.
        Evaluating the accuracy and quality of the information in kyphosis videos shared on YouTube.
        Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2018; 43: E1334-e1339
        • Sari E
        • Umur LF.
        The quality analysis of hallux valgus videos on YouTube.
        J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2021; (Epub ahead of printPMID: 33620454): 20-191