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Time to Revision After Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Total Ankle Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review

Published:September 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2022.09.001

      ABSTRACT

      While not a common complication after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) presents a significant risk of implant failure. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate time to revision after PJI in patients who had undergone TAA. An extensive search strategy via electronic databases initially captured 11,608 citations that were evaluated for relevance. Ultimately, 12 unique articles studying 3040 implants met inclusion criteria. The time to revision surgery due to PJI was recorded for each study and a weighted average obtained. The prevalence of PJI was 1.12% (n = 34). We found that the average time to revision due to PJI was 30.7 months, or approximately 2.6 years after the index TAA procedure. By literature definitions, the majority of cases (91.2%, n = 31) were beyond the “acute” PJI phase. The population was divided into 2 groups for further analysis of chronic infections. PJIs before the median were classified as “early” and those after as “late” chronic. The majority of cases (61.8%) were late chronic with an average time to revision of 44.3 months. A smaller number were early chronic (29.4%) with revision within 10.8 months. After summarizing the rates of infection and times to revision reported in the literature, we suggest modifying the current PJI classification to include early chronic and late chronic subgroups so that the total ankle surgeon is better prepared to prudently diagnose and treat PJIs.

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