Reliability and Reference Norms of Single Heel-Rise Test Among Children: A Cross-sectional Study

  • Rajnee Mishra
    Department of Pediatric and Neonatal Physiotherapy, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana, Haryana, India

    Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Bengal Cancer Foundation, Bardhaman Institute of Medical Science Hospital, Burdwan, West Bengal, India
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  • Vencita Priyanka Aranha
    Department of Pediatric and Neonatal Physiotherapy, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana, Haryana, India

    Aikya Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Centre, Karkala, Karnataka, India
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  • Asir John Samuel
    Address correspondence to: Dr. Asir John Samuel, MPT, PhD, Additional Professor cum Vice Principal, Yenepoya Physiotherapy College, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore University Road, Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India.
    Department of Pediatric and Neonatal Physiotherapy, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana, Haryana, India

    Yenepoya Physiotherapy College, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India
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Published:October 27, 2022DOI:


      There is a lack of data regarding the single heel-rise test (SHRT) among children. Hence, we aimed to establish reliability and reference norms of SHRT among children aged 8 to 12 years. About 500 healthy children were randomly selected from the recognized school and community settings. After demographic measurements, SHRT was conducted to evaluate the strength of each plantar flexors. SHRT repetitions were assessed by the same rater on 2 occasions for intrarater (on the same day) and test-retest reliability (on different days) and by 2 raters for inter-rater reliability. Relative reliability was described in terms of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Absolute reliability was indicated by the standard error of measurement (SEm), minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman graph. The mean of the number of repetitions of SHRT was calculated to derive the reference norm of SHRT. The anthropometric parameters were correlated with SHRT for multiple regression analysis. Intrarater, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability of SHRT were, ICC = 0.81, ICC = 0.70, and ICC = 0.57, respectively. The Bland-Altman graph confirmed limits of agreement for intrarater, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability. The reference norm of SHRT is documented to be 20.6 ± 4.8. SEm and MDC are found to be 2 and 3, respectively. Multiple regression analysis predicted a correlation of age, weight, and calf muscle girth with SHRT. SHRT is moderate to good reliable in assessing the strength of plantar flexors. The reference norms of SHRT have been derived for healthy children aged 8 to 12 years.

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