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Review Article| Volume 37, ISSUE 1, P69-74, January 1998

Cigarette smoking and bone healing: Implications in foot and ankle surgery

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Fellow, Foot and Ankle Surgery, Assistant Clinical Professor of Podiatric Medicine, College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa.
    Brent D. Haverstock
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Department of Surgery, Division of Podiatry, Broadlawns Medical Center, 1801 Hickman, Des Moines, Iowa 50314.
    Footnotes
    1 Fellow, Foot and Ankle Surgery, Assistant Clinical Professor of Podiatric Medicine, College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa.
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Surgery, Division of Podiatry, Broadlawns Medical Center, Des Moines, Iowa.
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Director of Foot and Ankle Clinics; Diplomate, American Board of Podiatric Surgery; Clinical Professor of Podiatric Medicine, College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa.
    Vincent J. Mandracchia
    Footnotes
    2 Director of Foot and Ankle Clinics; Diplomate, American Board of Podiatric Surgery; Clinical Professor of Podiatric Medicine, College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa.
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Surgery, Division of Podiatry, Broadlawns Medical Center, Des Moines, Iowa.
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Fellow, Foot and Ankle Surgery, Assistant Clinical Professor of Podiatric Medicine, College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa.
    2 Director of Foot and Ankle Clinics; Diplomate, American Board of Podiatric Surgery; Clinical Professor of Podiatric Medicine, College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa.
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      Despite the known health risks associated with cigarettes, millions of Americans continue to smoke. Much has been reported on the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on wound healing. Recent experimental work and clinical observation have demonstrated the risk of impaired bone healing associated with cigarette smoking. The authors review the biological aspects of bone healing and analyze how the chemical components of cigarette smoke affect the bone healing process. Laboratory and clinical data are also reviewed. Cessation of cigarette smoking before foot and ankle surgery is recommended by the authors.

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